Monday, October 12, 2009
Costa Rica & Panama Ensnared in Hemispheric Drug Trade
By Samuel Logan and John P. Sullivan
Colombia and Costa Rica reaffirmed
counternarcotics cooperation on 16 September, underscoring the reality of a new threat to security facing Costa Rica, a country
known as the Switzerland of Central America.
While most analysts consider
Central America’s northern triangle countries – Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras – to be the most affected
by the regional drug trade, Costa Rica and Panama have in 2009 become de facto passageways, warehouses and money laundering
fronts for both Mexican and Colombian organized crime.
The United Nations Office on
Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reports that seizures of cocaine have increased dramatically in Panama and Costa Rica over the last
In 2000, seizures of cocaine
in Panama and Costa Rica amounted to 7,400 and 5,871 kilograms, respectively. By 2007, this quantity had risen to 60,000 and
32,435 kilos for both states, respectively.
This surge dramatically underscores
the growing importance of these nations in the cross-Hemisphere drug trade. They have been caught in the crossfire of Mexico’s
Many analysts observe that Panama
could be an emerging narco-battleground. In addition to a suspected 2,000 coastal hideouts for maritime traffickers, there
is an emphasis on overland drug routes.
“Around 65 percent of the
drug smuggling traffic through Costa Rica and Panama is maritime, and most of the rest is over land,” Paul Knierim,
an agent with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) with experience in Central America and currently working as the
staff coordinator in congressional and public affairs, told ISN Security Watch.
Extreme violence is also on the
upswing. In April, alleged members of Mexico’s Sinaloa Cartel abducted two suspected Envigado Cartel members outside
Panama City’s Metro Plaza mall, just one sign of the country’s burgeoning drug trade. It is fueling a new generation
of gangs (108 gangs at current count), paid ‘in-kind’ with drugs by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
(FARC) and other traffickers.
Costa Rica: Encroaching on paradise
On 30 September, it was announced
that Costa Rica would receive an additional $1 million in Merida Initiative funds to combat drug trafficking (this is on top
of an initial $4.3 million allocated earlier this year). The funds are targeted to bolster the police and enhance efforts
to counter money laundering.
“Contrary to the Mexico
portion of the Merida Initiative, the Central American portion [also] includes a significant amount of funds for violence
prevention. We were pleased to see that almost a third of the funding for the first year was earmarked for prevention and
community policing efforts,” Adriana Beltran, senior associate for citizen security for the Washington Office on Latin
America, told ISN Security Watch.
But Bruce Bagley, chair of the
Department of International Studies with the University of Miami, remains cautious. “Costa Rica is a target of opportunity
and must be aware of and alert to its institutional vulnerability,” he told ISN Security Watch.
Costa Rican police assigned to
counterdrug duties had amounted to 183 officials assigned to the Policia de Control de Drogas (PCD). These officers are charged
with combating a half-billion dollar drug trade that moves at least 1,000 tons of cocaine annually.
second year of President Oscar Arias’ administration, when law enforcement registered a 400 percent increase in the
amount of larger shipments – 500 to 1,000 kilos – moving through Costa Rica, the country has begun to organize
a cohesive strategy to fight back, but observers are still concerned about what’s on the horizon.
Costa Rica, Panama and Nicaragua
are not only shifting from transit to processing territories, they are becoming drug-consuming nations as well. The increased
presence of drugs and drug gangs is stimulating a rise in crime and violence. Central America’s most peaceful countries
may find a serious security challenge ahead.
"We haven't yet seen an escalation
of violence, but there is concern, so we're focused on preventative maintenance and going after the kingpins," Knierim said.
Earlier this year, in March,
gunmen stole some 320 kilos of confiscated cocaine from a guarded storage unit in Golfito, a commercial center near the border
with Panama. Security measures failed again, in May, when a helicopter carrying an estimated 347 kilograms of cocaine crashed
on Costa Rica’s notorious Cerro de la Muerte, allegedly en route to a warehouse located near Turrialba, a small town
just east of the capital, San Jose.
At the time, Public Security
Minister Janina del Vecchio stated that “the presence of Mexican cartels in Costa Rica is worrisome,” adding that
the helicopter crash supported her analysis that Costa Rica is used for cocaine warehousing as much as it has been used for
transshipment. Del Vecchio also recently told the Tico Times that “[preventing
drug trafficking] isn’t just a fight on the seas, it’s also a fight in the streets […].”
Despite concerns of corruption,
Knierim remains supportive of Costa Rica’s security forces. "In my time in Costa Rica, I've had the pleasure of working
very closely with their drug police and judicial police, and they are some of the most professional, hard working cops in
Central America," he said.
By land or sea
Drug traffickers have begun to
use littoral routes on the Pacific side, as close as five to 10 miles offshore. At any sign of trouble, a number of estuaries
and rivers provide cover. Some don’t manage to hide.
On 7 September, officers with
Costa Rica’s Drug Control Police (PCD) stopped two fishermen steaming north about seven miles offshore and interdicted
1,095 kilos of cocaine. Just two weeks prior, officers seized 382 kilos of cocaine out of a boat parked on Garabito beach,
near Jaco, a world renowned surfing destination.
On land, the best route north
into Nicaragua and beyond is through Peņas Blancas, the border crossing in Costa Rica’s northwestern corner. Both countries
have placed a high priority on guarding this passage as it is considered a bottleneck for illicit shipments moving north by
One unintended consequence, however,
is that more weight will pass through Costa Rica’s disreputable Limon port on the Caribbean coast, where officers seized
110 kilos of cocaine from four dock workers who were offloading a container that had arrived from the Colombian port town
of Turbo, on the Uraba Bay, a long known drugs export zone.
Drug trafficking and the endemic
criminal violence it breeds are a threat to the entire Western Hemisphere. The southern states of Central America are
just encountering the risk involved.
At least two Mexican cartels,
the rival Sinaloa and Gulf Cartels, are active throughout Central America. It is near certain that the Zetas and others
are active as well. Add to this the traditional Colombian cartels and transnational, third-generation gangs such as
the Mara Salvatrucha, and the potential for cross-border drug wars and criminal insurgencies rises.
This article was originally published
at ISN Security Watch (10/07/09). The International Relations and Security
Network (ISN) is a free public service that provides a wide range of high-quality and comprehensive products and resources
to encourage the exchange of information among international relations and security professionals worldwide. Reprinted with permission from ISN.
Samuel Logan is an investigative journalist who has reported on security, energy, politics, economics, organized
crime, terrorism and black markets in Latin America since 1999. He is a senior
correspondent for ISN Security Watch, and editor of Southern Pulse – Networked Intelligence. He is the author of This is for the Mara Salvatrucha: Inside the MS-13, America's Most Violent Gang, from Hyperion. For issues related publications go to http://www.samuellogan.com/publications.html.
John P. Sullivan is a senior research fellow with the Center for the Advanced Studies of Terrorism (CAST) in Los Angeles. He is also a career police officer, currently serving as a lieutenant
with the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department. His current research focus is terrorism, transnational gangs, criminal
insurgency, and their impact on policing, intelligence, and sovereignty.